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Basic Properties of Solid Biofuel

Basic Properties of Solid Biofuel
Raw materials such as sawdust, wood chips, grass, urban waste wood, agricultural residues is to densify the biomass. This process includes grinding the raw biomass to an appropriate particulate size, It depends on the densification type, can be from 1 to 3 cm , which is then concentrated into a fuel product. The current processes produce wood pellets, charcoal, or briquettes.
Solid Biomass
Biomass, sometimes known as biomatter can be used to produce biofuel. This fuel can be delivered in many forms, such as biodiesel to fuel modern diesel vehicles and heat to heat water and drive turbines. Biomass comes in many forms, such as waste and crude vegetable and animal oil and fats (lipids), sugar cane residue, wheat chaff, corn cobs and other plant matter. In fact biomass can be defined as any recently living organisms or their metabolic by-products, such as manure from cows.
Main properties of solid biomass fuels


Heating value
The heating value is the energy content of the fuel (sometimes also called calorific value). It is determined by complete combustion of a dried sample in a calorimeter. The heat produced by condensation of water formed by the combustion is measured as well. The measured heat production is corrected for the moisture content in the original sample. This is referred to as the upper heating value (or gross calorific value) and specified as MJ/kg a.r.
Moisture content
The moisture content of the fuel is determined by oven drying a sample at a specified temperature, normally 105°C, for several hours until constant weight. The intention is to evaporate bulk water only, not chemically bound water. Moisture effect into calorific value and Healthy issues (mould, decay, fungi)
Ash content
The ash content of a solid biomass fuel is determined by combusting a sample at a specified temperature, normally 550°C, in an oven using air as atmosphere. Due to the relatively low temperature, the process takes several hours until constant weight. The intention is to convert organic matter only, leaving all inorganic elements behind.
Important for combustion and ash handling
About half of the world population depends today on solid biomass fuels for cooking and heating. While forest resources is limited, utilization of agricultural wastes and fibrous plants for fuel also adds considerably to the total bioenergy potential of agriculture and forestry.